Stress Fractures, Causes and Symptoms

Stress fractures are a common overuse injury in athletes. They occur when a person has a partial fracture in one of their bones. Unlike other broken bones, these are not caused by direct impact. Instead, these small breakages usually occur in weight-bearing bones, such as the shinbone and foot bones, and are caused by trauma incurred over time.

While stress fractures can happen to anyone, they are most often seen in people who are highly physically active. This injury is seen more frequently in Caucasians due to the fact that they have a lower average bone mass density than other races. This is also the case with women. Women have, on average, lower bone density than men, and so are more at risk for developing a stress fracture. Similarly, children are also at risk because their bones have not yet fully matured, and so are more prone to injury. Treatment varies depending on the severity of the injury. If left untreated, this condition can lead to a complete fracture of the bone.

Anatomy of the Bone

The bones are what give the body shape and stability. They consist of the following:

  • The Epiphysis (the ends of the bone)
  • The Epiphyseal Plate
  • The Metaphysis (the “neck” areas of the bone)
  • The Diaphysis (the shaft of the bone)
  • Articular cartilage
     

The skeletal system is in place to shape the body and protect major organs against damage. Muscles and ligaments oftentimes are attached to the bones to help provide stability and support. However, if the muscles become inflamed or twisted, they can ultimately lead to broken bones or infection in and around the bone, which can result in a stress fracture.
 
Types of Stress Fractures

Stress Fractures can occur in many parts of the skeleton:

  • Sacral – This type of stress fracture occurs in the  lowest part of the spine.  
  • Pubic – This is when a stress fracture occurs in the pubic bone, oftentimes resulting in the patient experiencing groin pain. 
  • Femoral neck – This fracture is in the upper part of the thighbone at the hip.
  • Tibial –  The lower leg, below the knee
  • Foot and ankle – This type occurs in the feet and ankles,  sometimes from increased running or walking.
     

Causes of Stress Fractures

There are a few causes of stress fractures:

  • Rapid Increase in activity – When a person increases  his/her activity level quickly, the body does not have time to recover. As more and more activity places strain on the muscles surrounding the bones and the bones themselves, it can cause stress fractures.
     
  • Impact on a new surface – If a person is used to running or walking on a specific surface, then switches to a harder surface, it can cause the bones to absorb more shock. If the bones are not used to this, it can cause them to eventually  develop a stress fracture.
     
  • Incorrect equipment – If a person switches the type of shoes they are used to wearing, or if they never wear shoes to support them in the right areas, then they are at risk of putting added stress, wear and tear on   the bones. This increases the  risk of stress fracture.
     
  • Cigarette smoking
     
  • Inadequate nutrition
     
  • Steroid use
     

Symptoms of Stress Fractures

Stress fractures have a variety of symptoms associated with them. In some cases, the symptoms may remain unnoticed until a larger injury occurs, while in other cases, the symptoms may be more painful and obvious.

The following are common stress fracture symptoms. Each person’s body reacts differently to trauma, so it is important to keep in mind that not all of these may be present:

  • Swelling
  • Pain
  • Tenderness
  • Increased swelling with activity
  • Continued pain in workouts
  • Earlier onset of pain in workouts
     

Stress fracture symptoms can go relatively unnoticed in a person and may only become known after a bone has broken completely or another injury has occurred. If you think you might have a stress fracture, it is important to see  an orthopaedic surgeon who can diagnose you and help prevent further injury.

The multidisciplinary team of orthopaedic experts at North Shore-LIJ Orthopaedic Institute's Trauma Services in New York treats Stress Fractures as well as a broad range of conditions that affect the bones within the body.

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